Review Sheet #2

Midterm #2

CES 101


  1. Giddy multitude; affirmative action; social junk; social dynamite; “Anti-Drug Abuse Act”; VIOLENT CRIME CONTROL AND LAW ENFORCEMENT ACT (1994); Willie Horton; Terry v. Ohio; Florida v. Bostick; pretext stops; operation pipeline; Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education study; criminalblackmen; McCleskey v. Kemp; Adoption and Safe Families Act; “Kill the Indian Save the Man”; Bordering schools; Ricardo; race-themed parties; hit rates; stop and frisk; manufactured misdemeanors; recidivism; NAFTA



  1. What reasons are given to explain health disparities
  2. Name three forms of exclusion that incarcerated Americans experience either while in prison or upon release (pp. 309-310)
  3. What impact did NAFTA have on corn production; pig farms; and bean production?  Impact on avocado production?
  4. Why are corn imports from the US cheaper than domestic corn produced in Mexico
  5. What describes black children relationship with social welfare system (Most likely to be removed; least likely to be reunited with parents or adopted)
  6. This often propels immigration (family considerations)
  7. Despite societal emphasis on “family values” and claims about “importance of two-parented families)” within discussions about poverty or crime, this actively splits apart families (THE STATE)
  8. Racial profiling is not a symptom of individual bias but this ______ (an institutional problem)
  9. When men leave to go work in the United States, what effects does this has on their wives & children.
  10. What is the impact of stop and frisk policies in NY
  11. When (what month) do most “ghetto” parties take place
  12. 5 myths of affirmative action
  13. First person to mention (publicly propose) affirmative action
  14. This president that saw the greatest expansion of America’s war on drugs
  15. First president to mention war on drugs?
  16. Describe progress in integration of America’s public schools
  17. What percentage of cases are plea bargain?
  18. In 1976, 12 percent of Harvard’s freshman class was children of this group
  19. According to Schmidt, how many white students lack the advertised academic standards for each of 146 colleges in Barron’s Top two tiers
  20. Why do universities spend at least 1500 dollars for every student they enroll?
  21. Why did America’s elite universities instituted letters of recommendations, essays, personal interviews, and consideration of extracurricular activities?
  22. Name three ways that wealthy applicants are privileged in university application process
  23. These two factors are greatest predictors of being sent to prison as an adult
  24. What explains the dramatic increase in prison population since 1980?
  25. Thoughts/reaction to: “Twenty years later, more than one third (35 percent) of prison admissions resulted from parole. To put matters more starkly: (Almost as many people were returned to prison for parole violations in 2000 as were admitted to prison in 1980 for all reasons.  Of all parole violators returned to prison in 2000 only one-third were returned for a new conviction; two-third were returned for a technical violation such as missing appointments with a parole officer, failing to maintain employment, or failing a drug test”
  26. Reaction to fact that 35% of released prisoners are rearrested within 6 months – what is the significance of this fact? What is dominant media explanation and how does that compare with facts on ground (see question 25)
  27. How can you explain that in seven states African Americans constitute “80-90 percent of all drug offenders sent to prison” (as of 2000) and that in 15 states, African Americans were sent “to prison on drug charges at a rate from 25 to 57 times greater than that of white men”?  How does the dominant media explain these statistics and what are the problems with such arguments?
  28. Why is the “prevalence of white drug crime – including drug dealing – not surprising”?
  1. What is significance of fact that 80 percent of criminal defendants are indigent and thus unable to hire a lawyer?




Key Information


  • African Americans constituted “80-90 percent of all drug offenders sent to prison” (as of 2000) and that in 15 states, African Americans were sent “to prison on drug charges at a rate from twenty to fifty-seven times greater than that of white men”
  • What contributes to a system of prisons that continue to be fully occupied — parole violations
  • Over 1 million black people (out of 35 million total), 1 out of 35; split it in half, 1 out of 17 men, remove the very old and very young, the number drops to 1 in 10; including those on parole or probation the number is 1 in 4; for those in their 20s its 1 in 3; black males have 30%+ chance of doing time at some point in their lives.  SO, 1 in 3 black men in 20s are on probation, parole or in prison; Latinos around 16% (1 in 6) and whites around 4% (1 in 24)
  • On Interstate 95 in Maryland, African Americans reflected 17% of drivers, but accounted for 70% of those stopped and searched by the police (racial minorities: 21 percent of drivers but 80 of drivers searched); Black women are 20 times more likely than white women to be searched by U.S. Customs and even forced to take laxatives, even though white and Latina women are more likely to be carrying drug
  • Black heroin deliverers are more than 22 times more likely than white heroin deliverers to be arrested,” NOTED REPORT FROM KATHERINE BECKETT. “Black methamphetamine deliverers are over 31 times more likely than white methamphetamine deliverers to be arrested.”
  • “Circular LOGIC OF RACIAL PROFILING”: prisons or arrest rates cited as basis of profile (of course if you stop 100 motorists and 80 are racial minorities with countless white motorist in possession driving right past officer, is it surprising that arrests and prisons look the way to do: profile reflects profile not profile of who is a criminal – that becomes justification or basis of profile
  • In NY, 46,500 people were arrested for marijuana possession in 2009; 87% of these people were black and Latino.
  • 90 percent of those incarcerated for drug offenses in Illinois are black
  • LA county between 1988-1995 did not convict a single person on a crack offense
  • Crack is racialized black and poor, powder as white and rich. Yet, most crack users are whites between 16 and 36  (nearly 2/3)
  • In 1991, the Hartford Courant reported that bail amounts for black defendants were, on average, more than 70 percent higher than for white defendants.
  • In California alone, during the first five years of the Drug War (1986-1991), nearly 70,000 black people were incarcerated, a rate of 1000 per month or 1 every half an hour (for 5 years!).  30,000 Chicano/Latinos were put away and 15,000 whites over the same period.  In all, nearly 120,000 people were subtracted from the public sphere in the State of California, the equivalent of the carnage produced by the atomic bomb at Hiroshima
  • Among youth with no prior record arrested for violent crimes, including murder, rape and robbery, 137 out of every 100,000 blacks were incarcerated, compared with 15 out of every 100,000 white
  • Defendants convicted of crack possession in 1994, for example, were 84.5% black, 10.3% white, and 5.2% Latinos.  Trafficking offenders were 4.1% white, 88.3% black, and 7.1% Latino
  • More generally, while African Americans constitute 13% of all monthly drug users, they represent 38% of arrests for drug possession, 55% of convictions and 74% of prison sentences
  • The number of black (non-Latino) women incarcerated for drug offenses in state prisons increased by 828% from 1986 to 1991, first five years of Reagan’s War on Drugs
  • A black youth is six times more likely to be locked up than a white peer, even when charged with a similar crime and when neither has a prior record
  • In New York, women of color are 91% of those women sentenced to prison for drug crimes, although they make up just 32% of the state’s female population.8
  • Although Native Americans in Montana comprise only about 6 percent of the total state population, Native women constitute approximately 25% of the female prison population. According to Professor Luana Ross, “[a] partial explanation for the female prison population is their incarceration for drug offenses
  • Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education: 95 percent of respondents imagined an African American when asked about drug user
  • Crime=blackness; drugs=blackness – Kathyrn Russell’s idea of “criminalblackman”
  • “Racial bias in drug was inevitable” (104) because of implicit racial bias; racial stigmas, because of inequality, because of history, because of white racial framing
  • Responding to claim that arrest/prosecution/sentencing/prison populations are racially defined because blacks and Latinos are more likely to use or sell drugs in open spaces, more likely to be arrest: Katherine Beckett found that although 100s of open-air drug transactions were taking within white neighborhoods, the police focused on black neighborhoods, where drug transactions less frequent.




Health Disparities result from


  • Lack of access to health care
  • Lack of access to healthy foods
  • Limited green space
  • Stress caused by racism
  • Dangerous of jobs
  • Lack of access paid sick leave
  • Obesity
  • Cultural obstacles
  • Lack of diversity within medical profession
  • Racial profiling by doctors



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